1.   Cooking is the application of heat to food for the purpose of making it more digestible, safer to eat, more palatable and to Change its appearance.

3.   Food is composed of five major constituents. They are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins.

This knowledge helps to substitute materials when necessary, or rectify the texture and Taste if something goes wrong. Also it helps to improve the quality and get standard end product. Good, tasty and colorful dishes, it is
essential to have a basic knowledge of the raw materials, their
characteristics and the special part they play.


                     Raw materials:
1)  Foundation ingredient  6) Flavorings and seasonings
2)  Fats & oils                        7) Sweetening’s
3)  Salt                                    8) Thickenings
4)  Raising agents               9) Eggs
5)  Liquids

                               FOUNDATION INGREDIENT

An ingredient is any substance used in the manufacture or Preparation of a foodstuff and still present in the finished product, Even if in an altered form. Contaminants and adulterants are not considered to be ingredients.

Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally
soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Fats may
be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature and melt when heated

Cooking oil is purified fat of plant or animal origin, which is liquid at room temperature. Some of the many different kinds of Edible vegetable oils include: olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argon oil and rice bran oil. Many other kinds of Vegetable oils are also used for cooking.

Fats are solid at ordinary temperature and melt when heated. Oils are liquids at ordinary temperature but solidify at low Temperatures. 
Characteristics of Fats and Oils
When heated above certain temperatures. When choosing a cooking oil, it is therefore important to note the oil's heat tolerance, and to match the oil to its use in cooking. Heating oil changes its characteristics. Some oils that are healthy at room temperature can become unhealthy.
Tran’s fats are unsaturated fats that are not required or beneficial for health. Hydrogenation, a process that adds hydrogen atoms to fat molecules to make them more saturated, is responsible.
Frying Media:

Fats and oils are used as a medium of cooking pan roasting, frying and sauteing. When fats or oils are heated, a temperature is reached at which visible fumes appear which is defined as smoke point. Fats with high smoke point are suitable for frying. Smoke point is not the same for different

Fats are used in confectionery to enrich the food and to impart to them short eating qualities. Collectively they are referred to as shortening agents. Their effect is to break down or destroy the toughness of gluten, so that instead of being hard and tough to eat, food containing fat break off short and readily melt in the mouth. 
 Butter and margarines are used for spreads, and their Function is to add to the flavor, nutritional value and satiety value of breads.
Salad Dressings:

Fat is used for the various salad dressings.  The hot animal Fat dressings, which consist of bacon fat, vinegar and Seasonings are used for green hot salads. Mayonnaise used for dressing salads is an emulsion of oil, acid, egg yolk and seasoning.
Dishes such as dales, curries are tempered. The fat or oil is heated to which cumin seed or mustard or greenback seeds etc. is added and poured over the dales and pulses.

Rendering of Fat
Animal fat is heated and melted and this renders fat from fatty Tissues. Tallow, suet, lard are usually rendered and used for cooking. The fat is cut into small pieces and placed in a pan and put in the Oven or on slow fire, until the fat melts, and there are crisp brown pieces of tissues left. This should be strained through a fine cloth into a clean bowl.
             Clarification of Fat
Used fat should be clarified and then used for better results in Cooking. Strain the used fat and then mix double the quantity of Water, in a pan and bring it to the boil. Strain again, cool and place in a refrigerator. The fat will solidify and float on top. Lift the cake of fat, Turn it upside down and scrape off the foreign particles that have collected. Heat the fat on slow fire, till the water evaporates and then Strain and store it in a cool place.
Normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Salt is an essential ingredient for both sweet and savory dishes. Salt helps to bring out the flavor of other ingredients.  If too much is added, food becomes inedible and too little makes food insipid. The right amount to be added is known by experience. It adds to the nutritive value of food by providing the essential mineral, sodium chloride.
Salt has physical effects on the gluten of flour. In reasonable Quality it strengthens gluten and increases its resistance to the Softening effects of fermentation. Too much salt on the other hand will remove the power of gluten to hold gas. Salt also acts as a preservative; it speeds up coagulation of eggs and lowers the Freezing point.
Salt is available in three forms:
1.  Table salt fine containing phosphate
2.  Coarse or freezing salt for culinary purposes
3.  Celery salt used as an alternative to fresh celery or celery seed.
Uses of Salt
1)  Salt is essential for good health.
2)  Salt is used as a preservative and as a seasoning. Salting is one of the oldest popular methods of preserving ham, bacon, fish, etc.
3)  Use of the correct amount of salt improves the flavor of the savory dished and when a little is added to sweet Dished, it enhances the flavor.
   4)  It  has  a  physical  effect  on  the  gluten  of  flour  and Strengthens gluten and increases its resistance to the softening effects of fermentation.
5) Cauliflower, when put in salted water, makes the insects come out.
6)  It has a controlling effect on the activity of yeast in bakery products.  It controls fermentation and hence it has marked effect on crumb, crust and color of baked products.
7)  Salt added to water, for cooking green vegetables, helps in color retention and enhances the taste.

                          A raising agent is a substance used in dough’s and batters that causes a foaming action intended to lighten and soften the finished product. The function of the raising agent is to puff up the food that it
spreads and rises and becomes full of holes, thus making it light and not close and heavy. The holes made by the raising agent sareretained during the process of cooking. The leavening of the flour mixture is accomplished by the expansion of water vapor and carbon dioxide. When the product is heated the air expands and part of the water vaporizes. The formation of carbon-dioxide requires the presence of suitable microorganisms or chemical agents. During the first part of heating gas production is accelerated and the gas formed expands as the temperature rises.

The following are the different types of raising agents:
·         Biological raising agents
·         Chemical raising agents
·         Mechanical leavening
·         Other scriveners

Biological Scriveners Microorganisms that release carbon dioxide as part of their life cycle can be used to leaven products. Varieties of yeast are most often used, particularly Saccharomyces species (i.e. baker's yeast),
though some recipes also rely on certain bacteria. Yeast leaves
behind waste byproducts (particularly ethanol and some catalysis products) that contribute to the distinctive flavor of yeast breads. In sourdough breads, the flavor is further enhanced by various lactic or acetic acid bacteria.
Leavening with yeast is a process based on fermentation, physically changing the chemistry of the dough or batter as the yeast works. Unlike chemical leavening, which usually activates as soon as the water combines the acid and base chemicals, yeast leavening requires proofing, which allows the yeast time to reproduce and consume carbohydrates in the flour.

While not as widely used, bacterial fermentation is sometimes used, occasionally providing a drastically changed flavor profile from yeast fermentation; salt rising bread, which uses a culture of the Colostrum infringements bacterium.

Chemical ScrivenersChemical scriveners are chemical mixtures or compounds that typically release carbon dioxide or other gases when they react with moisture and heat; they are almost always based on a combination of acid usually a low molecular weight organic acid and an alkali though ammonia-based scriveners are also available, though in decreasing quantity. They usually leave behind a chemical salt. Chemical scriveners are used in quick breads and cakes, as well as cookies and numerous other applications where a long biological fermentation is impractical or undesirable. Since the chemical expertise required to create a functional chemical leaven without leaving behind off-flavors from the chemical precursors  involved,  such  substances  are  often  mixed  into remeasured  combinations  for  maximum  results.  
Mechanical Leavening

Mechanical leavening is the process of incorporating air by whisking, beating and sieving. Creaming is the process of beating sugar crystals and solid fat typically butter together in a mixer. This integrates tiny air bubbles into the mixture, since the sugar crystals physically cut through the structure of the fat. Creamed mixtures are usually further leavened by a chemical leavened.

Using a whisk on certain liquids, notably cream or egg whites, Can also create foams through mechanical action. This is the method employed in the making of sponge cakes, where an egg protein matrix produced by vigorous whipping provides almost all the structure of the finished product.
Other Scriveners Steam and air are used as leavening agents when they expand upon heating. To take advantage of this style of leavening, the baking must be done at high enough temperatures to flash the
water to steam, with a batter that is capable of holding the steam in until set.

Air as a Raising Agent: Air is incorporated by sifting flour, by creaming shortening, by beating eggs or by beating the mixture itself. Water Vapor as a Raising Agent: Water vapor is formed in quantities sufficient to raise the mixture when liquid and flour are in equal volumes. 

Cooking often involves water which is frequently present as other liquids, both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked typically water, stock or wine, and released from the foods themselves. Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used may be based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising and Blanching. Liquid is necessary to bind dry ingredients together, to act as a cooking medium and to thin down a gravy or sauce. Milk, water, stock and fruit-juices are the most commonly used liquids. 
Water and Milk
Water and milk are used for preparing poaching liquor, soups, sauces, gravies, cakes and pastry moisture and kneading of dough’s etc. Stock is a flavored liquid. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups and sauces. Stock is prepared by simmering various ingredients in water, including some or all of the following:
Bones veal, beef and chicken bones - The flavor of the stock comes from the cartilage and connective tissue in the bones. Connective tissue has collagen in it, which gets converted into gelatin that thickens the liquid. Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for longer than stock made from meat often referred to as broth.       
Mir-apex - A combination of onions, carrots, celery and sometimes other vegetables. Often the less desirable parts of the vegetables such as carrot skins and celery ends) are used since they will not be eaten.
Herbs and spices - The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local traditions. In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet grain consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of Thyme and possibly other herbs, is common. This is often wrapped in a cheesecloth "bag" and tied with string to make it easier to remove it once the stock is cooked.
Flavoring and seasoning are the process of adding or improving flavor of food. Flavoring combines taste and smell such as essences, cardamon, nutmeg, thyme etc. Seasonings include herbs, spices, and all other condiments. Example: black pepper, basil, kosher salt, etc.
Spices and herbs give flavoring and seasoning to the Dishes. To get effective results, not only should the food, please the eye, but should also flatter or stimulate the palate.  The success of cooking largely depends upon the help we obtain from flavoring and seasoning. The spice we use for this purpose should be used sparingly, as well as with skill. All palates may not crave for high spiced food, yet majority of people demand, that the food be moderately flavored with the right constituents. To use flavoring and seasoning rightly is a great accomplishment; the dish could be spoilt by being over seasoned. Seasoning should bring out the natural flavors of the main ingredients and blend with them. Seasonings as such have little or no nutritive value but are valuable for they give variety to the dishes and have medicine value.
Spices that have flavorings and seasonings are: Garlic ginger, cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, cumin seeds, mustard seeds, poppy seeds, nutmeg, coriander powder, mace, pepper, fenugreek, chilies,  saffron,  aniseed,  turmeric,  paprika,  caraway  seeds, allspices, sesame. Various herbs are: parsley, celery, coriander leaves, thyme, tarragon, rosemary, mint, marjoram, sage, bay leaf, basil, chervil, Patrica, etc.  

What is Cooking

Cooking is an art.   It is linked with the dietary habits and cultural pattern of people.  The intention of cooking is to see that the food cooked undergoes a physical and a chemical change at the end result is edible and acceptable.

Applying  heat  to  a  food  usually,  though  not  always, chemically  transforms  it,  thus  changing  its  flavor,  texture, consistency, appearance, and nutritional properties. 
Cooking is the application of heat to food for the purpose of making it more digestible, safer to eat, more palatable and to change its appearance. To cook food, heat must be introduced. In the cooking process the heat breaks down the cellulose in the plant, softens some of the connective tissues in the meat, changes and blends flavors within the food and destroys bacteria, makes food more acceptable to human beings and their digestive system.

  • Cooking increases habitability. Cooking pleases the eye and is receptive to the palate and helps to stimulate the digestive juices, thereby creating an appetite.
  • Cooking helps to provide a balanced meal. The different ingredients combined together in one dish make it easier to provide a balanced meal. 
  • Cooking sterilizes the food partially. Cooked food can be stored for a longer time and it prevents food poisoning and diseases when stored properly. Some of the disease producing germs is killed by cooking. They are killed because of high temperature during the cooking process. A temperature of 600°C applied over 30 or more minutes, kills most of the pathogenic germs.
  • Cooking retains, as far as possible, the nutritive and flavoring ingredients. The flavor depends upon the amount and kind of extraction present, and the acids developed. Nutritive value is enhanced if the fat proportion in the meat is more. While cooking, the nutrition could be preserved by using the cooking liquor.
  • Cooking gives a variety to the menu, as one food item could be cooked in various ways and given different textures, e.g. mutton in a soup, roast joint, croquettes, stews, keema, sookha meat, boti kababs, etc. Different methods of cooking when used make the menu interesting and enhance variety. It is, therefore, easier to plan a balanced diet.
Cooking preserves food for a longer time. The high temperature destroys bacteria and limits spoilage. It is economical as the cooked leftovers could be utilized and new dishes could be prepared. 


The following are the advantages of cooking

  • Cooking makes the food easy to chew.  makes animal foods more digestible.
  • Cooking softens the connective tissues in the meat and Cooking makes the complex foods split into simpler substances.
  • Cooking helps to kill harmful bacteria. It makes the food safe to eat.
  •  Cooking preserves the food.
  • Cooking increases adaptability. It improves taste and enhances the flavor.
  • A  wide  variety  of dishes  can  be  made  by different methods of cooking viz. boiling,  frying,  roasting, microwaving, baking, smoking, etc.
  • Cooking makes the dish more colorful. It develops new flavors in food.
  • Cooking makes the food to appreciable texture.
  • Cooking makes food more appetizing.
  • Cooking provides balanced meal.
  • Cooking adds more nutritive value to food.


Food is composed of the following five constituents
  • Carbohydrates 
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Minerals 
  • Vitamins 
CarbohydratesCarbohydrates used in cooking include simple sugars such as glucose from table sugar and fructose from fruit and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot and potato. 

Sources of Carbohydrates

Fats: Fats and oils come from both animal and plant sources. In cooking, fats provide tastes and textures. When used as the principal cooking medium rather than water, they also allow the cook access to a wide range of cooking temperatures. 

Fats & Oils: Common oil-cooking techniques include sauteing, stir-frying, and deep-frying. Commonly used fats and oils include butter, olive oil, sunflower oil, lard, beef fat both dripping and tallow, rapeseed oil or canola, and peanut oil. The inclusion of fats tends to add flavor to cooked food.

ProteinsEdible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk and egg White, contains substantial amounts of protein. Almost all Vegetable matter in particular legumes and seeds also Includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. These may also be a source of essential amine acids. 

Minerals:  Minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. Sometimes these "minerals" come from natural sources such as ground oyster shells. Sometimes minerals are added to the diet separately from food, such as mineral 
supplements, the most famous being iodine in "iodized salt.

VitaminsVitamins are essential for the normal growth and development. It is a key nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to grow and stay strong. Examples are vitamins A, C, and E. Vitamins are found in many fruits and vegetables;  especially green peppers, citrus, strawberries, tomatoes, Broccoli, leafy greens, potatoes, animal foods; such as liver, Whole eggs and milk. 

Action of Heat on Carbohydrates: The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex. Long chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into more simple sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups. If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallization is driven off, then Amelioration starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon and other breakdown products producing caramel. 

An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked. In European Cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces. In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water. These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharine during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces. This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat. 

Action of Heat on Proteins

When proteins are heated they become DE-nurtured and change texture. In many cases, this
causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable - meat becomes cooked. 
Action of Heat on Fats 
Fat melts when it comes in contact with heat. If heated to a very high degree for a long time, fats undergo partial decomposition and fatty acids and glycerol are produced. Glycerol further decomposes into caroling which is an irritating compound to the digestive system. When fat heated for long time at too slow temperature it thickens, becoming gummy. This condition is known as polymerization, and fat that has reached this stage is no longer fit for use.

Action of Heat on Minerals 
There is no appreciable loss of minerals due to cooking. Some minerals are made more readily available by cooking. 

Action of Heat on Vitamins 

There is some unavoidable loss of vitamins during cooking. The loss is considerable in respect of thiamine and vitamin C. Vitamin A and D are not destroyed by the ordinary methods of cooking. Vitamin B may be destroyed during cooking if cooked at High temperature. The use of baking soda in cooking causes further Destruction of vitamins. 


Pulses: Pulses are rich in protein 20 to 25 per cent. They also contain small quantities of starch.  It is very important to boil pulses very thoroughly. This destroys the typicality substance present in them.
Green Leafy Vegetables: Green leafy vegetables are prized for vitamins and minerals.  The vitamin A which occurs in the form of thiamine and vitamin C are partially destroyed by cooking. If the cooking water is drained away, there will be loss of not only   vitamins   but   also   minerals. It is therefore recommended that green leafy vegetables should be cooked in a small amount of water and for the proper length of time.  Baking soda should not be used to hasten cooking.
Other Vegetables: Vegetables like potatoes should be cooked with their outer Skin intact; this retains all the vitamins and minerals Contained in them.  As a rule, vegetables should be cooked in a small amount of water to prevent loss of vitamins and minerals.

Cooking of Fruits: Most fruits are eaten fresh and raw. This makes the Vitamins present in fruits easily available.  Fruits can also be cooked by stewing; this will result in loss of some vitamins, particularly, vitamin C.

Cooking of Meat: Meat is cooked in a number of ways. While cooking, meat coagulation of protein is at 60°C. There is reduction in water content; consequently there is shrinkage of meat, Collagen which is a protein of the connective tissues is changed into gelatin, Elastic, which is also component of connective tissue is not affected, the fat of meat melts, there is loss of mineral in cooking water but this water can be used as soup or gravy, Loss of B-group vitamins especially thiamine.

Cooking of FishFish contains so little connective tissue, that the cooking Time is very short. The proteins coagulate at 60°C.

Cooking of Milk:
When milk is heated, a scum consisting of fat, forms on the surface. This makes it difficult for steam to escape; hence milk boils over easily.  Some of the albuminous sticks to the Sides and bottom.  Prolonged boiling alters the taste of milk.

The cooked flavor is due to burning or centralization of Milk sugar.  There is destruction of thiamine and vitamin C during boiling. Milk, which is already a poor source of vitamin C becomes poorer at the end of boiling.   Boiling destroys enzymes and the useful lactic acid bacteria Present in milk.

Cooking of Eggs: The albumin of the egg begins to coagulate at 60°C; and solidifies at 64°C - 65°C. At boiling point 100°, the Albumin becomes tough. However there is little change in the nutrients present in the egg.

Culinary art is the art of cooking. The word "culinary" is defined as something related to or connected with cooking or kitchens. A culinary is a person working in the culinary arts. A Culinary working in restaurants is commonly known as a cook or a chef. Culinary artists are responsible for skillfully preparing meals that are as pleasing to the palate as to the eye. Increasingly they are required  to  have knowledge  of  the  science  of  food  and  an understanding  of  diet  and  nutrition.  They work primarily in Restaurants, fast food franchises, delicatessens, hospitals and other institutions and corporations.


Cuisine is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. Religious food laws can also Exercise a strong influence on cuisine. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade.

Cooking is an act of preparing food for eating.  It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food. It generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. 

Cooking tenders the food easy to digest. It makes mastication easier. It lends a new flavor and thereby stimulates digestive juices. It sterilizes food by killing microorganisms and parasitic ova and eggs. It introduces variety, that is, many different cooking increases the acceptability of food, whereas bad cooking may lead to rejection of even highly nutritious attractive foods. Different raw materials are Used in cooking to produce a complete dish. Each ingredient in a dish has a special part to play. The materials are classified according to the part they play in making up a dish. The effects of cooking on the chief constituents of food are visible in their increased digestibility.
Culinary art is the art of cooking. The culinary arts profession is made up of people who work either directly or indirectly in the Preparation and service of food items in the public or private sector. Cuisine is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often Associated with a specific culture.